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新生代的新式剽竊:拷貝粘貼也是抄襲

原文作者:趙越

  給你一些作業題目,并允許你訪問“萬能”的網絡,只要拷貝粘貼,任何問題都能搞定。但你可知道這樣的行為其實也是一種剽竊嗎?在信息技術發達的今天,剽竊和作弊變得越來越容易,這些現象也越來越普遍,在中學生和大學生中間尤為嚴重。可剽竊意識不夠也好,原創意識淡化也罷,關鍵是,不經自己思考、直接照搬現成信息的行為不是自欺欺人嗎?當有一天,你發現自己失去了創造的能力,那可就真的后悔也來不及了。
   exhibit a: a freshman at rhode island college copied and pasted material from a web site into his research paper about homelessness. he didn't think he needed to credit2) the source because the site didn't list an author.
   exhibit b: middle school students from pennsylvania told the authors of a study on cheating that the internet was "magic" because it provided almost any information they wanted. "once i forgot to do my homework," said one student. "and i went [online] and just copied the paper in my handwriting, and [the teacher] never knew."
   事例1:羅德島學院的一位大一學生在撰寫有關“無家可歸現象”的研究論文時,從某個網站復制粘貼了一些素材作為自己論文的一部分。www.tiertafelkiel.com他覺得自己不必注明那些素材的出處,因為那個網站也沒有署上作者的姓名。
   事例2:在做一個有關作弊的研究時,其作者從來自賓夕法尼亞州的中學生口中得知:網絡很“神奇”,因為它幾乎可以提供他們想要的任何信息。“有一次,我忘了寫作業,”一名學生說,“于是我就去[上網]把網上的一篇論文動手抄了下來,而老師完全沒有發現。”[論文網]
   the problem with both examples is that copying someone else's words—whether from a book, a tv show, or the internet—without attribution3) is plagiarism. but many students, accustomed4) to the free flow of information online, don't realize that copying from the web is a serious misdeed. in fact, it can lead to suspension5), expulsion6), or a permanent mark on your academic record.
   donald l. mccabe is a professor at rutgers university in new jersey. in his surveys of college students, 40 percent admitted to plagiarizing a few sentences in written assignments. some 61 percent admitted to cheating on assignments or exams. in another survey, more than half of students in grades 7 to 12 admitted to some form of cheating involving the web. about one third said that they didn't consider downloading a paper from the internet to be a serious offense.
   alarmed at the rise of digital cheating, many educators have responded by using services like turnitin.com. this site and others allow teachers to check students' work for plagiarism against a database of millions of term papers.
   以上兩個例子的問題都在于:無論是從書本上、電視節目中還是網絡上,抄襲了他人的詞句又不標明出處即是剽竊。然而,很多學生對網絡上自由流動的信息習以為常,并沒有意識到從網上拷貝東西是一種后果嚴重的錯誤行為。事實上,這種行為可能會導致暫被停學或被開除的后果,或者會在你的學業履歷中留下永久的污點。
   唐納德·l·麥凱布是新澤西州羅格斯大學的教授。在他對大學生所做的調查中,有40%的學生都承認他們在做書面作業時從別處抄襲過一些句子。有61%的學生承認自己在做作業或考試中作過弊。在另一項調查中,7~12年級的學生當中有超過半數的人承認自己有過某種與網絡相關的作弊行為。大約有三分之一的學生坦言,他們不認為從網上下載論文是多么嚴重的過錯。
   由于網絡抄襲事件不斷增多,許多老師感到擔憂,他們已經開始使用諸如turnitin.com這樣的網站作為應對手段。該網站和其他此類網站都擁有包含數百萬篇學期論文的數據庫,能讓老師們檢測出學生的作業中是否有抄襲現象。

  author! author! 作者!作者!
  it may also be redefining how students, who are used to music-file-sharing and wikipedia, understand the concept of authorship.
   "we have a whole generation of students who've grown up with information that just seems to be hanging out there in cyberspace and doesn't see

m to have an author," says teresa fishman, the director of the center for academic integrity at clemson university in south carolina. "it's possible to believe this information is just out there for anyone to take."
   sarah brookover, a senior at rutgers, has observed many of her classmates copying and pasting from the web. when you do research on the internet, she says, "you're not walking into a library, you're not physically holding the article." you can forget that the ideas aren't yours. online, she says, "everything can 'belong' to you really easily."
   針對那些習慣使用網上的音樂共享資源和維基百科網站的學生,我們也許需要重新界定他們是如何理解“作者”這一概念的。
  “整個這一代的學生在各種信息的包圍中長大,這些信息就那樣掛在網上,似乎并沒有作者,很可能讓人認為這些信息就是掛在網上供任何人拿來用的。”南卡羅來納州克萊姆森大學學術誠信中心的負責人特蕾莎·菲什曼說。
   莎拉·布魯克奧弗是羅格斯大學的大四學生,她注意到,她的很多同學都會從網上復制粘貼一些信息。當你上網做研究時,她說,“你并不是去了圖書館,也不是真的用手拿著那篇文章在讀。”你會忘記那些觀點并不是你自己的。在網上,她說,“你很容易就把任何信息都當成是‘屬于’你的。”
   is originality dead? 原創已死?
  last year, helene hegemann tested the notion that it's ok to blend all of this free-floating information into a creative work. the teen's best-selling novel about young people in germany's capital, berlin, was found to include passages lifted from other authors. hegemann didn't apologize. instead, she declared: "there's no such thing as originality anyway."
   hogwash7), says sarah wilensky. while a student at indiana university, wilensky took aim at hegemann in a column in her school newspaper headlined "generation plagiarism". relaxing plagiarism standards, she wrote, "does not foster8) creativity; it fosters laziness" .
   donald j. dudley, who oversees the discipline office at the university of california, davis, agrees. of the 196 plagiarism cases referred to his office in 2009, most involved students who intentionally copied.
   to address the problem, some colleges are requiring students to complete online tutorials about plagiarism. at one school, such tutorials cut plagiarism cases by two thirds. meanwhile, public schools around the country are making students sign technology agreements9) acknowledging the seriousness of copying and pasting.
   but no method works like understanding the value of research. "people who plagiarize are cheating themselves," one student wrote on a new york times blog. "one day, they'll be asked to create something new, something that doesn't already have a wikipedia page, and they won't be able to."
   有觀點認為,把網絡上那些自由流動的信息全部整合成一部富有創造性的作品無可厚非。去年,海倫妮·黑格曼就把這種觀點付諸了實踐。這個十幾歲的孩子撰寫了一本關于德國首都柏林的年輕人的暢銷小說,人們發現她書中有些章節是從其他作家那里抄襲來的。黑格曼并沒有道歉。相反,她宣稱:“反正原創性這種東西根本就不存在。”
   莎拉·威倫斯基稱,黑格曼的話完全是一派胡言。在印第安納大學讀書時,威倫斯基就曾為校報寫過一篇題為“新生代的剽竊現象”的專欄文章來抨擊黑格曼。她當時這樣寫道,如果將界定作弊的標準放寬,“不但不會激發創造力,反而會助長懶惰因子”。
   加州大學戴維斯分校教導處的負責人唐納德·j·達德利對威倫斯基的觀點表示贊同。在2009年提交到他那里的196起作弊事件中,大部分都是學生有意進行抄襲的。
  為解決這種問題,一些大學要求學生必須修完關于抄襲行為的在線輔導課。在某所學校,這種輔導課使抄襲事件減少了三分之二。與此同時,全美各地的公立學校都要求學生在“技術使用許可協議”上簽字,協議中明確了拷貝粘貼的嚴重性。
   然而,沒有哪種方法能比認識到研究的價值所在更奏效。“作弊的人是在自欺欺人,”一位學生曾在《紐約時報》的博客上這樣寫道,“總有一天,有人會要求他們創造出

一些新的東西,一些維基百科的網頁還沒有涉及的內容,而他們將無能為力。”
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  •  更新時間:2013-04-07 16:35:21  作者:佚名 [標簽: ]
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